Now for your dose of music theory.
The time signature denoted here is 2/4 time. That means there are two beats per measure and a quarter note gets one count (or beat). Then it logically follows that a half note, which is counted as two beats, occupies an entire measure such as in the picture above.
Common time (denoted by the C above) is also known as 4/4 time. That means there are four beats to a measure and a quarter note gets one count (or beat). Also in this picture is the notation "Tempo I." This is usually used after a passage of music that is at a different tempo than the composition began with. Once this passage of music is complete, a composer will often note "Tempo I" to let you know that the original tempo called for at the beginning of the composition is in effect again.
Remember forzando? I can not seem to track down a definition for fffz, but I can imagine that it is like forzando (fz) but with the most sudden emphasis that you can muster. This is an intense finish to the piece. The most intense chords in the entire piece.